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Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval - The Message of the Sphinx A Quest for the Hidden Legacy of Mankind

free P D F Click Here   Excellent book

Here is a little bit from inside


Chapter 1

Horizon Dweller

‘There is scarcely a person in the civilized world

who is unfamiliar with the form and features of the

great man-headed lion that guards the eastern

approach to the Giza pyramids.’

Ahmed Fakhry, The Pyramids, 1961

A gigantic statue, with lion body and the head of a man, gazes east from

Egypt along the thirtieth parallel. It is a monolith, carved out of the

limestone bedrock of the Giza plateau, two hundred and forty feet long,

thirty-eight feet wide across the shoulders, and sixty-six feet high. It is

worn down and eroded, battered, fissured and collapsing. Yet nothing

else that has reached us from antiquity even remotely matches its power

and grandeur, its majesty and its mystery, or its sombre and hypnotic


It is the Great Sphinx.

Once it was believed to be an eternal God.

Then amnesia ensnared it and it fell into an enchanted sleep.

Ages passed: thousands of years. Climates changed. Cultures changed.

Religions changed. Languages changed. Even the positions of the stars in

the skies changed. But still the statue endured, brooding and numinous,

wrapped in silence.

Often sand engulfed it. At widely separated intervals a benevolent ruler

would arrange to have it cleared. There were those who attempted to

restore it, covering parts of its rock-hewn body with blocks of masonry.

For a long period it was painted red.

By Islamic times the desert had buried it up to its neck and it had been

given a new, or perhaps a very old, name: ‘Near to one of the Pyramids,’

reported Abdel-Latif in the twelfth century, ‘is a colossal head emerging

from the ground. It is called Abul-Hol.’ And in the fourteenth century El-

Makrizi wrote of a man named Saim-ed-Dahr who ‘wanted to remedy

some of the religious errors and he went to the Pyramids and disfigured

the face of Abul-Hol, which has remained in that state from that time until

now. From the time of this disfigurement, also, the sand has invaded the

cultivated land of Giza, and the people attribute this to the disfigurement

of Abul-Hol.’

Enduring memories

Abul-Hol, the Arabic name for the Great Sphinx of Egypt, is supposed by

most translators to mean ‘Father of Terror’.

An alternative etymology, however, has been proposed by the

Egyptologist Selim Hassan. During the extensive excavations that he

undertook on the Giza plateau in the 1930s and ‘40s he uncovered

evidence that a colony of foreigners—‘Cananites’—had resided in this

part of Lower Egypt in the early second millennium BC. They were from

the sacred city of Harran (located in the south of modern Turkey near its

border with Syria) and they may perhaps have been pilgrims. At any rate

artefacts and commemorative stelae prove that they lived in the

immediate vicinity of the Sphinx—worshipping it as a god under the

name Hwl.1

In the Ancient Egyptian language, bw means ‘place’. Hassan therefore

reasonably proposes that Abul-Hol, ‘is simply a corruption of bw Hwl, “the

Place of Hwl”, and does not at all mean “Father of Terror”, as is generally


When speaking of the Sphinx, the Ancient Egyptians frequently made

use of the Harranian derivation Hwl, but they also knew it by many other

names: Hu,3 for example, and Hor-em-Akhet—which means ‘Horus in the

Horizon'.4 In addition, for reasons that have never been fully understood,

the Sphinx was often referred to as Seshep-ankh Atum, ‘the living image

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